Monday, September 16, 2019

CHRISTOBIOGRAPHY: Memory History and the Reliability of the Gospels by Craig S. Keener - A Review




CHRISTOBIOGRAPHY: MEMORY, HISTORY, 

AND THE RELIABILITY OF THE GOSPELS 


Author: Craig S. Keener

Reviewed by Geoffrey W. Sutton

It’s the second word in the title, memory, that first grabbed my attention. Then I noticed the word, reliability. Like many clinicians, I’ve administered many memory tests and discovered an incredible range of memory capacity. I've tested preschool children and senior adults. I used the best available tests covering a wide range of human memory. And, as a Christian thinker about integration, I wondered about the scant attention given to the role of memory and reliability in understanding the interplay between biblical texts and psychological science. So, I come to Keener’s latest cornucopia with considerable curiosity.

Craig S. Keener is professor of New Testament at Asbury Theological Seminary. Together, his works have sold over a million copies. He describes his scholarly vantage point as to the right of center. A scholar to the left of center would be someone like Marcus Borg.

This review is based on an academic review--I'll provide links to that below.

Christobiography is a lengthy tome of 743 pages! However, the text ends on page 501, and many pages contain footnotes that can cover nearly half a page. I read the work in five days and that includes making copious notes in the margins to help me remember key points to put in my review. I would note that Keener repeats many of his points and includes some details in the text that could be placed in an Appendix.

Christobiography consists of 17 chapters divided into five parts. At the risk of oversimplifying this considerable work, Keener demonstrates by reference to many examples that the synoptic gospels (Mark, Matthew, Luke) are more like ancient biographies than like fictional works (that is, ancient novels). The gospels also share some features in common with ancient historical works. These examples help set the stage for contemporary readers to be reasonable in what they should expect when they read the gospels. Following are somethings you will find in the five parts.

Part 1: Biographies about Jesus
Keener examines the differences and similarities among documents written close to the time of the synoptic gospels, which he places in the middle to late first century. This is where he concludes that the gospels are more like ancient biographies than like ancient novels. More specifically, the gospels are similar to biographies of sages or philosophers, which contain many of their sayings.

Part 2: Biographies and History
Considering examples of early historical manuscripts, it seems reasonable to view the gospels as having some features in common with ancient works of history. That is, the gospel writers refer to historic events. And, there may be similarities between ancient biographies and ancient historical works. A key difference between ancient biographies and historical works is of course the focus on one main person.

In both histories and biographies, the ancient authors had some flexibility in writing about events. They may structure the content in different ways but readers in that era expected writers to present history in a fair and honest manner. The gospel of Luke is close to a history especially considering the companion work of Acts; however, Luke also has much in common with ancient biographies.

Part 3: Testing the Range of Deviation

Keener assumes his readers have an acquaintance with the variations among the gospel accounts in terms of details and chronologies. He demonstrates such text variations were not uncommon in ancient biographies by looking at three biographies of Otho (c 32-69 CE). A reliable biography is one that is true in the sense of honest reporting about events that really happened. I think this quote helps explains what Keener means by true: “True” did not mean that audiences would expect chronological precision, verbatim recall, or precision on minor points.” (p. 259).

Part 4: Two Objections to Gospels as Historical Biographies
In this section, Keener addresses two objections from skeptical religious scholars:

1. The miracle stories are unique and are not similar to other biographies.

2. The gospel of John is very different from the other three gospels.

Keener acknowledges the lack of ancient biographies of miracle workers before the gospels. He offers several arguments about the accounts of healings and exorcisms. For example, even today we find people in many cultures claim they have experienced or witnessed miraculous healings and exorcisms. To risk a paraphrase of Keener's argument, we can have confidence in the events reported as healings and exorcisms even if we do not accept the explanation that the reported results were caused by divine/supernatural intervention.

Keener provides a fairly detailed look at many similarities and differences between John’s gospel and the synoptics. He argues that despite John’s differences, the fourth gospel still appears to be an account of events similar to those expected in ancient biographies.

Part 5: Memories about Jesus: Memories before Memoirs
In part five, Keener demonstrates his acquaintance with relevant psychological studies documenting the fallibility of human memory and particularly the problems of eyewitness testimony, which is the likely source of information about the works and sayings of Jesus presented in the gospels.

Keener argues based on personal experience and psychological research that what people accurately remember and pass along in oral cultures and ordinary experience is the gist of an event. Dialogue may be paraphrased or reconstructed but is rarely verbatim. He notes an exception—anecdotes uttered by a respected teacher, such as Jesus, may very well be verbatim.

Keener invites readers to consider that Jesus' disciples, who had great respect for their teacher, might be more attentive to learning what Jesus taught than would be a casual observer.

He also notes that, in primarily oral cultures, students were expected to pass along a sage’s teachings as spoken. Ancient storytellers may have some liberty in retelling a historical event, but an ancient audience would not have tolerated variations on essential details. Once again, the gist remains the standard for stories in a reliable ancient biography.



Some Reflections

Keener’s Christobiography is relevant to clinicians and psychological scientists interested in the integration of faith and psychological science. I would suppose it is of interest to many religious scholars, including seminary students, but that is not my area of expertise.

Keener is clearly a conservative religious scholar, but I think he fairly addressed many of the reasonable questions one could ask about the reliability of the gospels. I agree with Keener that his arguments are not likely to convince highly skeptical scholars who are inclined to consider the gospels as works of fiction. I also agree with his belief that this book is not likely to be appreciated by those who insist that the gospel writers reported Jesus's words verbatim and that the variations in details such as chronology of events are of little consequence in a true account.

As a psychologist, I would like to have seen Keener use more primary sources when reporting memory research. He does cite Loftus, Nucci, and Hoffman (1998) but seems to rely on summary sources (e.g., McIver, 2012).

To psychologists, reliability implies consistency. Highly reliable measurement should yield similar scores. To the extent that repeated use of a test yields similar scores, we have a high degree of confidence in the results. Examining ancient works is a different task than testing, but if the "score" is analogous to the gist of an event and not the details, then it seems we can have a high degree of confidence in the gospels.

Psychologists also consider the validity of their measures. It's one thing to say a test usually produces similar scores (reliability), but it's quite another thing to say a test usually produces valid scores. Validity deals with purpose.



Reliability is a necessary but not sufficient condition for validity.

Therefore, I think we need another volume on the validities of the gospels. I use the term validities on purpose. Any use of a test or set of data (think gospel texts as data) may have a variety of valid uses, but there will be limits on what constitutes a valid use. Perhaps some Bible commentaries address the issue of validity. If you know of a scholarly work, that provides an overt link between reliability and validity, do comment.

Now, here's my comment on spiritual humility. Have you heard Christians pontificate about what people ought to believe and do in order to be a Christian? I dare say there are limits on flexibility on the concept, Christian. However, I venture to say that given the evidence of variations in the ancient words and phrases in the gospels and other biblical texts, it would be wise to be less arrogant in dictating what are mandatory beliefs and morals if such statements are based on a few ancient words or the interpretation of a phrase.



References 

Keener, C. S. (2019). Christobiography: Memory history and the reliability of the gospels. Grand Rapids, MI: Erdmans.

Loftus, E. F., Nucci, M., & Hoffman, H. (1998). Manufacturing memory. American Journal of Forensic Psychology, 16, 63–75.

McIver, R. K. (2012). Eyewitnesses as Guarantors of the Accuracy of the Gospel Traditions in the Light of Psychological Research. Journal of Biblical Literature, 131(3), 529–546. https://doi.org/10.2307/23488253

Sutton, G. W. (in press). [Review of the book Christobiography: Memory, history, and the reliability of the gospels by C. S. Keener]. Journal of Psychology and Christianity, XX, pp-pp. Accepted for publication September 16, 2019. See Researchgate or Academia


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Thursday, August 29, 2019

Unprotected Texts by Jennifer Knust Book Review by Sutton



UNPROTECTED TEXTS
The Bible’s Surprising Contradictions  
about Sex and Desire

Author:  Jennifer Wright Knust

Date: 2011

Reviewed by

  Geoffrey W. Sutton





Knust’s book has an intriguing title for anyone thinking about the sex-related moral issues constantly in the news. I purchased the digital copy of her book as I was writing A House Divided: Sexuality, Morality, and Christian Cultures, and I’m glad I did because I referenced some of her insights.

Knust has impressive credentials. She has a Ph.D., from Columbia University and is an Associate Professor of New Testament and Christian Origins at Boston University School of Theology. She’s also an ordained American Baptist pastor.

This well written book addresses biblical sex in six chapters with primary titles that do not easily identify the subject matter until you’ve read a few pages. In this review, I’ll provide a summary, then add some thoughts at the end of this review.

*****

The Bible and the Joy of Sex (chapter 1) introduces us to texts that celebrate sex outside of marriage—an obvious contrast to the interpretations offered to evangelical youth. Knust offers us the graphic imagery in The Song (aka Song of Solomon) as evidence of biblical erotica expressed in the relationship between two unmarried lovers. We also glimpse Ruth’s seduction of Boaz and King David’s infamous extramarital affair with Bathsheba. As Knust concludes, “…the passages considered in this chapter suggest that nonmarital desire can be both limitless and productive.” (Kindle Locations 871-872)

Anyone reading the Bible knows ancient men in many cultures had many wives. Chapter 2 is about biblical marriage. If you follow American news, you know Christian evangelicals have worked hard at establishing a cultural norm that legal marriage ought to be between one man and one woman. Knust takes us through several texts to make the point that biblical women were the property of the men in their families. Not surprisingly, the story begins with Adam and Eve, but we have no specific commandments about marriage until we get to the books of Exodus and Deuteronomy. Here we are reminded of the high value placed on a woman’s virginity, Israelite rules governing slave women and their families, and the rights of fathers, husbands, and slave owners with respect to women. Next, Knust reviews the various New Testament teachings on marriage and divorce. I found Table 1 particularly useful because she provides details comparing the similarities and differences among the gospel writers.

It’s no secret that evangelical preachers and conservative theologies have warned congregants about sexual immorality. In chapter 3, The Evil Impulse, Knust examines Disordered and Ordered Desire. The chapter opens with a discussion of Paul’s advice to the Corinthians about the value of celibacy— provided people have self-control—otherwise, they ought to marry. In Corinthians 6, Paul communicates the horrid consequences of missing out of the kingdom of God as a penalty for engaging in sexual immorality. Knust examines Paul’s language in the context of Greco-Roman culture. She reminds readers of Paul’s expectation of Jesus’ soon return and the later writings that emphasize authoritative control of people and their passions through household structures (e.g., Ephesians, 1 Timothy). By the end of the chapter we have learned that the early Christians wrestled with the same issues as those in the Roman culture concerning appropriate ways for men to manage their sexual desire.

Chapter 4 is about Sexual Politics. The Old Testament writers condemn enemy tribes using the language of sex and idolatry—the outsiders are prostitutes. Purity and holiness are values reflected in the rules about sex. Prohibitions against incest is one example of biblical attention to detail about what constituted a sex crime. Despite the attacks on the evil of their neighbors, we see that the Israelites were guilty of the same sexual sins.

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Chapter 5 is perhaps the strangest, Strange Flesh. Here we are reminded of that quizzical old text about the sons of God having sex with earthly women (Genesis 6). Knust traces the history of the relationships between heavenly beings and those of earth. This exploration takes us to the much-quoted story of Sodom and the men who wanted to rape Lot’s heavenly guests. And we see this angel-human relationship story pop up centuries later in Jude and 2 Peter. We now return to the stories of Sodom and the Levite’s Concubine (Judges 19). We learn of several lessons that may be taken from these stories—especially the importance of showing high respect for one’s guests (i.e., hospitality norms). We also see the concern of biblical writers for crossing sexual boundaries between humans and supernatural beings, which is in contrast to the recent interpretations about male homosexuality. Appropriate sexual boundaries are also the topic of texts dealing with foreign tribes as seen in the rape of Dinah (Genesis 34).

I’d call Chapter 6 miscellaneous topics. Bodily Parts includes a review of biblical voices about Circumcision, Semen, and the Products of a Woman’s Womb. The history of circumcision and its role in separating one culture from another is interesting—especially when we see the considerations of the early churchmen regarding what gentile converts ought to do. Next, Knust reviews the rules about purification from bodily discharges and the different paths to becoming clean so that one may enter God’s holy place. At the end of this chapter, Knust observes the difficulty in applying ancient interpretations of bodily discharges to contemporary life.

In her conclusion, Knust expresses concern about biblical interpretations that demean a group of people or form the basis for denying rights to people. The book’s end matter includes an extensive bibliography and an index.

Some Thoughts

I recommend Unprotected Texts to Christians who want to learn more about the perspectives of ancient Israelites regarding human sexuality and the righteous life. Knust’s work joins others in emphasizing the diverse voices within the biblical texts as well as a cacophony of interpretations by biblical scholars and authoritarian clergy. Although published nearly a decade ago, the book remains relevant to contemporary discussions about laws and policies attempting to control human sexual desire. That is, the Bible contains much evidence that regardless of laws, human beings have a hard time controlling their sexual desires.

I would certainly recommend this book to students who are researching various views on sex and gender-linked topics. The book is relevant to understanding people’s views about sex and gender in any nation where Christian teaching has been influential in their laws and cultural norms.

Knust’s view of the Bible as a collection of works by many men with different views about how godly people ought to behave is common among biblical scholars. However, the view is not common among evangelical Christians—especially those who lean heavily toward a fundamentalist (near literal) interpretation of most texts. Reading translations of old texts out of their historical context is a danger. Readers may surely disagree with Knust, but I think her voice is worth hearing—especially when Christians want to claim they have the correct interpretation of the Bible and wish to create restrictive laws based on their interpretation.

 References

Knust, J. W. (2011). Unprotected texts: The Bible’s surprising contradictions about sex and desire. New York: HarperCollins

Sutton, G. W. (2016). A house divided: Sexuality, morality, and Christian cultures. Eugene, OR: Pickwick. ISBN: 9781498224888


A related post is the book, Sex Texts by Hornsby



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Monday, July 22, 2019

Metaphors to Live By - Reading the Bible by Marcus Borg




A Review of Marcus Borg’s 

Reading the Bible Again for the First Time: 

Taking the Bible Seriously but Not literally.

            My earliest memory of a conflict between the Bible and the observable world happened sometime in late childhood when I learned that the moon was not a light as it plainly said in my King James Version of Genesis 1:16. It was downhill from there. Like many of my friends, we learned a near literal interpretation of the Bible from parents with a limited education and churches where teachers shared a blend of fundamentalism and evangelicalism. Their application of select biblical laws, commandments, and rules to contemporary life seemed strangely arbitrary and unnecessarily restrictive. I should like to think Marcus Borg’s, Reading the Bible Again for the First Time, would have saved me considerable puzzlement—and likely some distress. I’ll say more later but first, a summary of Reading the Bible Again for the First Time.

*****
            Borg establishes the conflict in the preface. Christians are faced with two very different ways of reading the sacred text, that is, The Holy Bible. Many of us learned the “literal-factual” way. Borg offers us a “historical-metaphorical” way. The two different ways of reading the text divide Christians not just in churches but in the public arena of American politics.

            Borg divides his highly readable volume into three parts. In Part One, he provides a foundation for reading the Bible in this new way. We learn a little history of the Bible, which of course was not read by ordinary folks until people learned to read and the text became widely available. A near literalism combined with church doctrines was taught for centuries with a focus on salvation from sin and living a moral life so, in the end, you had heaven to gain. Now Borg introduces readers to the alternative view that our sacred text reveals a variety of ways people understood God and their relationship to God., Borg closes Part One by explaining what he means by the “historical-metaphorical” way of reading the Bible. Readers need to understand the historical context to appreciate how ancient Hebrews expressed their faith, but we would be left with a rather dead text if we ignored the beauty of the metaphors in play from Genesis to Revelation. In Borg’s words: “Metaphor is linguistic art or verbal art” (Location 569).

            In Part Two we learn how the Hebrew Bible (Old Testament for Christians) comes alive when we don’t have to worry about the days or sequences of creation, which of 613 laws ought to be kept, or how to make sense of the horrible ways ancient people destroyed each other in the name of God. Here, I cannot do justice to Borg’s text in a typical review because he gives numerous examples of how contemporary readers can learn that the problems of yesteryear continue to trouble us today. Then, as now, ordinary people suffered from economic exploitation by taxes and the possession of land, political oppression by kings and emperors, and religious legitimation—a nation’s leaders dictate what God ordains. Along the way, we gain insights into how to read poetry and the wisdom literature such as is found in the proverbs. We also learn how prophets challenged kings. And we glimpse how people celebrated their relationship with God.

            If you are familiar with the Bible, you won’t be surprised to learn that Part Three is about the New Testament. In three chapters, Borg summarizes how the Gospels, letters of Paul, and The Revelation can also be read in their historical context along with an appreciation of the rich metaphors that can transcend 20 centuries. He reminds us that Jesus, his followers, and all, or almost all, the writers were Jewish men thus, we learn of the importance of understanding the problem of first century Jews under the sandal of the Roman Empire and the necessity of appreciating the influence of Jewish traditions on the stories of Jesus and the metaphors of the writers. Borg is not rigid as he interprets the text. I suppose some might believe if they had enough faith, they could walk on water, but the story as metaphor suggests more than one meaning. We might learn that people with spiritual sight learn to calm their inner fears or cope with the struggles of life. I should say, these interpretations are my own thoughts as a psychologist reading Borg’s discussion of God vs. the traditional theme of angry seas, which in the gospel story were calmed by Jesus.

            Paul is a problematic author for many a modern Christian—especially American women who don’t find much support in doctrines of submission, silence, and guidance on what to wear (or not wear). As others have said, we can take the edge off Paul a bit if we realize some of the texts limiting women’s roles were likely not written by Paul. And, Paul wrote most of his letters as a reply to specific questions that arose in the various Christian communities he founded or supported during his travels. We gain a bit more insight into Paul’s theology when we unpack his recurring themes of freedom and transformation developed from his Damascus Road experience. The way of becoming a new person, like the way lived out by Jesus, is a path of dying to an old way and rising to embrace a new way. In his day and now, people like Paul may be transformed following an encounter with Jesus.

            Fittingly, the Revelation is at the end of the Bible, at the end of Borg’s book, and for many, a mysterious End Times story. Long ago I learned that wall charts describing the end of life as we know it lacked credibility. I suppose those complex flow charts are in someone’s attic gathering dust. But I digress. Borg offers nonscholars a brief history of the difficulty of life under the Roman Empire of the first century—a time when those under Roman domination were to worship Caesar as god. Borg provides an orderly and masterful summary of Revelation along with guidance to help readers appreciate the how the vivid images relate to Hebrew history and life under Roman rule. Borg’s interpretation is in sharp contrast to futuristic interpretations that continue to scare some contemporary Christian youth while comforting the elderly with the confidence that they are on the winning side in the massive end-of-world bloody war over evil.

            In the Epilogue, Borg reiterates his point about the Bible containing different voices and encourages us to see the ancient conflicts between kings and prophets—between elite leaders who use their positions to oppress and exploit ordinary people and the voices of those who speak against injustice. He also encourages readers to think of Christianity as being about more than a list of beliefs and practices. Christianity is about relationships—relating to God and others with passion and compassion.

*****
            I suppose Reading the Bible Again is for any Christian who finds that the clergy and teachers in their faith tradition seem disconnected from their life experience in the way they preach, teach, or blog about living in our complex world. For different reasons, many of us discovered that near literal interpretations of the Bible don’t make sense. Each generation of Christian youth since the 1960s has different reasons for challenging simplistic applications or applications that seem cruel and contradictory if we are to believe God is a loving and caring being.

            In the 1960s, those raised in American holiness traditions discovered the arbitrariness of rules against dancing, mixed swimming, long hair on men, tattoos, make-up, movies, jewelry, women wearing pants instead of dresses, and many other quotable prohibitions from some part of God’s Word. Not surprisingly, some, left Christianity behind. Others moved on to churches that were more concerned with doing good than trying to live according to rules made for ancient Israelite tribes or for the Jews and gentiles in early Christian communities.

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            Somewhere along the way to the 21st century, educated youth learned to appreciate the scientific explanations for the origin of amazing landscapes and the diversity of life on the planet. We learned so much about birth and death and we benefit from advances in medicine. Slowly, scientists offered more and more explanations relevant to daily life. And many of those scientists happened to be women. Perhaps making matters worse for those insisting on near literal interpretations of the Bible were advances in the behavioral sciences, which upended thinking about mental health, sexuality, and people who experienced hallucinations and delusions. Christians turned away from clergy to find answers to life problems in the offices of physicians, psychologists, and a host of other professionals who offered evidence-based treatments for infertility, contagious diseases, anxiety, depression, schizophrenia, and more.

            Moreover, in recent decades, a cacophony of evangelical voices seem at odds with one another over biblical perspectives on the role of women in the church and society, birth control, sex education, the nature of marriage, parenting, abortion, same-sex relationships, and the allocation of church and social resources to help the poor of one’s own nation as well as the world. Of recent concern has been the strident rhetoric used by politically active American Christians to condemn those who do not share their political views.

            I think there may be another value of this book to all those who work with Christians who find themselves distressed because of some application of the Bible to their life. They may feel guilty, angry with God, or conflicted over biblical teaching regarding some past or planned act. On the one hand, such people may find helpful guidance from their local clergy. On the other hand, they may consult a mental health professional hoping to find a different opinion. Caution is in order here because a person’s faith can be a significant part of personal identity. However, clinicians of any faith or no faith will likely find Borg’s work instructive for understanding Christians.

            Reading the Bible Again is for all those who wish there was another way to embrace the sacred text of their childhood without compromising the facts about the natural world, their intelligence, and respect for all people regardless of their natal sex. Borg doesn’t have all the answers, but he does offer an alternative way of respecting the Bible again and, more importantly, reconnecting with the God who has inspired people for thousands of years to champion the causes of the downtrodden, sick, poor, and social outcasts.

*****
            Borg stated there are only two ways to read the texts. And I think he’s right. The near literalist view continues to dominate conservative evangelical churches and the postings of their adherents on social media sites. Those educated evangelicals who try to mix some literalism with some metaphors end up with an unsatisfactory concoction, which can only lead to intelligent young people throwing up their metaphorical hands and walking away.

            The time has come to follow Jesus’ lead. Like his rule about the Sabbath Day, old rules were meant for an ancient society, the Sabbath was made for man. If you try to put new wine into old wine skins, they will burst. Being free in Christ means finding out what it means to love God by loving others in one’s sphere of life. Christians live out Paul’s theme of dying to oneself and rising again when engaged in life-enhancing pursuits for the wellbeing of those around us.

            As Borg’s subtitle reads, Christians can “take the Bible seriously but not literally.”

Reference

Borg, M.J. (2001). Reading the bible again for the first time: taking the bible seriously but not literally (ePub ed.). New York: HarperCollins.

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Saturday, March 9, 2019

London: A Biography - Book Review

London: A Biography

By Peter Ackroyd

Reviewed by

Geoffrey W. Sutton





London: A Biography is not a biography in the usual sense of the term. True, Ackroyd is an excellent writer who is adept at weaving together bits of archaeology with a historical note and a dollop of quotes from a novelist. I did enjoy the book, but it was not what I expected.


As a Londoner, I hoped to discover new insights into the nether regions of the past and present. That hope was realised. In fact, I am looking for some of the books Ackroyd mentioned in his closing essay.



I suppose any biographer has to pick and choose among the many events in a long life that tell an interesting story. The author has chosen well. Would I have chosen differently? Yes. I would like more about science and history with fewer quotations from literary sources. I read about so many churches, but I did not learn much about the interaction of the people with their churches. I read about a few royals and captains of industry, but most of the time I was reading about those who struggled to survive. I almost expected to see family names when he took us down dour lanes for a dip in the cloudy culture of those hamlets south of the Thames.

Reference

Ackroyd, P. (2009).  London: A biography. New York: Anchor.


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Tuesday, February 5, 2019

They Shall Not Grow Old




They Shall Not Grow Old is a profoundly moving tribute to the soldiers of World War I. Peter Jackson (Director; coproducer with Clare Olssen) and his team combine enhanced archival films, photos, audio recordings, and artwork to bring us face to face with the adolescents and young men living and dying along the Western Front.

On the brief skeleton of the sequence of the war years, this documentary tells an extraordinary tale of ordinairy men from the farms, factories, and shops of Great Britain to the muddy graves of the ragged pattern of muddy trenches along the Western Front. Humour and games offer parenthetical relief from the abysmal struggle.

The colourisation and 3D conversion along with other technological modifications help us glimpse the soldier's world of 100 years ago. Many of us have read about the war and seen the old black and white clips bounce by at unnatural speeds. The marvel of technology helps us get closer to real people living and dying on orders from above. We wonder with the story tellers what it's like to live unwashed for days, smell the unberable stench of death, and cope with the raging thunder of artillery.

Whatever one thinks of war, the film is worth seeing to better understand this troubling period when millions died. Jackson worked with the extensive materials in the archives of the Imperial War Museum. Thus, the focus is on the British soldier. Although the film mentions other allies, it is worth remembering that millions of men and women from many nations were in combat zones in Europe and other places around the globe. Perhaps we can get a glimpse of what it might have been like for others from this in-depth look at these young British lads.

In the epilogue, Jackson mentions his grandfather and other connections to the war. That's what brings it home for me as both my grandfathers were in France. Considering the millions who died and survived with or without impairments, there are likely many millions currently alive who have grandparents who can pass along stories of their fathers, mothers, and uncles. Now is the time to remember the men and women of 1914-1918 and to keep a vigilant watch over the decisions our politicians make when it comes to starting or entering a war.




CAUTION: This film contains graphic and disturbing content and may not be suitable for all viewers.


Movie site They Shall Not Grow Old 2018.

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