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Applied Statistics-Concepts for Counselors - Statistics Text


Applied Statistics

Concepts for Counselors

Second Edition


  Geoffrey W. Sutton PhD




“Even though I completed multiple graduate level statistics courses, I benefitted from the simple and straight forward content of this text. Practice tests at the end of chapters helps assess learning and application. This is a great refresher resource for counselors and beginning graduate students.”

        ––Christine Arnzen, Ph.D., LPC, Associate Professor, Coordinator, 
            Graduate Counseling Programs

“If you need to review basic statistics and don’t know where to begin, this book is perfect! It makes difficult concepts easy to understand. I would recommend it for my undergraduate students who haven’t had statistics in a while and need a refresher, or for graduate students facing their first graduate level research class!”

    —Heather L. Kelly, Psy.D., Professor of Psychology, Department Chair, 
        Evangel University, Springfield, Missouri, USA

“I really appreciated the places where you gave applied examples. For me, those have always helped me to understand the function of statistics.”

­        —Nick Schollars, M.S., Mental Health Counseling, PsyD

“This comprehensive yet concise overview of statistical concepts related to counseling research and practice, is a much needed must-read for all counselling graduate students before they start writing their research proposal. Too often I’ve had to read research proposals where candidates have just not done the necessary legwork before deciding on what and why they want to research the topic, and how they want to do it. This text would be an important starting point - once they have decided, much more detail (not included in this text) would have to be explored, but this primer will help graduates find their way in making those important research decisions at the start of their journey. They will thank Geoff Sutton for helping them find their way and pointing them in the right direction.”
    —Dr. Mervin Van der Spuy, Psychopharmacologist & Couples Therapist, 
        Paraklesis Counselling, Calgary, Alberta, Canada



Table of Contents

Introduction                                                                  7        

 Unit 1: Overview: Statistics in Perspective               13

  1.  Counselors and Science                                       15

  2.  Counseling Research                                            21

  3.  Variables                                                               25

  4.  Forming Groups                                                   31

  5.  Measurement                                                        37

 Unit 2: Describing Groups                                         41

  6.  Frequencies and Percentages                                43

  7.  Distribution of Data                                              47

  8.  On Average                                                            51

  9.  Ranges                                                                  55

  10.  Distributions Part 1                                              61

  11.  Distributions Part 2                                              67

 Unit 3: Describing Relationships                                 72

  12.  Hypothesis Testing                                               73

  13.  Correlation                                                           79

  14.  Charts                                                                   87

  15.  Predictions                                                            91

 Unit 4: Discovering Group Differences                       94

   16.  t tests                                                                   95

  17.  Analysis of Variance                                          103

  18.  Chi-square                                                          113

 Unit 5: Understanding Test Scores                              116

   19.  Test Scores                                                          117

  20.  Test Score Reliability                                          125

  21.  Test Score Validity                                              131

 Unit 6: Additional Statistics                                         138

   22.  Statistics for Ordinal Data                                   139

  23.  Reading Complex Statistics                                 143

 References                                                                   154

Appendix A: Normal Curve                                          158

Appendix B: Test Scores                                              159

Appendix C: Practice Test                                            160

Appendix D: Answers to Practice Test                         173

Appendix E: Symbols and Abbreviations                     176

Appendix F: Glossary                                                   179

Appendix G: Online Resources                                    189

Table of Contents Detailed View                                  193

Acknowledgements                                                      200

About the Author                                                          201




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